Implementing BIM starts with vision and leadership, but it is ultimately driven and successfully carried out through effort on the the team individuals who will apply BIM in their day-to-day execution of projects. To assist organizations in making a BIM business transformation a reality, this white paper will outline a high-level framework for implementing BIM. The key elements we have found every successful implementation must consider:
- To be effective, a BIM implementation must reach across a business. It cannot be an IT initiative or done solely at a project or disciplinary level. These approaches (often called “lonely BIM”), while yielding some results, in the end do not transform a business and deliver only a portion of the benefits promised by BIM.
- To truly reap the advantages of BIM, executive leadership must learn to think, communicate, and manage expectations around BIM.
- A methodical BIM implementation provides a logical set of milestones (in addition to specific ones particular of the organization) based on a progression of BIM maturity. Adding staggered initiatives and pilot projects to the implementation plan also provide an opportunity for frequent recognition of achievements.
- A BIM transformation requires new skill sets and new ways of working. It also requires an understanding of sometimes new and misunderstood BIM concepts.
- BIM is a catalyst for changing the relationships and agreements between project stakeholders. BIM-enabled collaboration is a significant change to traditional processes (with great potential to improve the working relationship among the team), but it can also generate new challenges that need to be resolved.
- Compliance, auditing, & quality control: Project reviews permit BIM leadership teams to evaluate lead measures and the effectiveness of BIM technology, standards, and processes on various project types. BIM leadership catch errors, improve standards and processes, and reproduce best practices on other project teams across the organization. These reviews are also an excellent source for harvesting success stories that can infuse energy into the transformation process.
Production of deliverables
In a BIM project there are a large volume of information and workprogress under the visible surface forming the deliverables, that's why sometimes it's tended to underplay and even to skip all the basis thanks to which the project is heading in the right direction. BIM2D dimension constituets a fundamental part that gap to address project development toward the goals reflected in the BIM Execution Plan. In this dimension of the project are implemented reliable and quality processes for the project decisions, main assessments will be hierarchised, and the model must be adapted accordingly. PARAMETERIZATION: It's one of the biggest advantages of BIM technology. Allows to add intelligence to the model, and to address the changes that it will experience in the development phase while maintaining its essence and its vector. This can be done with programming, which can be integrated in BIM softwares or implemented externally. STANDARDIZATION: There is a wide variety of guides that fix usage patterns in BIM technology, it's important to know the main to allow select the well-known patterns suitable in the BIM project development. To adapt to these patterns brings benefits such us to have documentation and BIM tools enough to take these standards, to collaborate effectively with other teams who will participate in the project and, above all, to avoid missing into an unknown world of improvisation. Next we mention some of the best-known standards:
- IFC - Industry Foundation Classes - It is aneutral platform, a standard file format and opensource, developed to facilitate interoperability between the increasingly numerous BIM platforms (software), thus allowing to generate federated models for management that bring together the project information from all disciplines involved in the project.
- COBie - Construction Operations Building Information Exchange - Its purpose is to exchange information that is gathered during construction to be passed to Facility Managemet scope. COBie defines the way this information is structured, and the formats that can be used.
- LOD - Level of Development - Is a parameter that defines the information definition level in a BIM element. Is not necessarily the amount of information but it's the reilability based in specific criteria, and is not directly associated with the geometric development of that BIM element.
- OCCS - Omni Class Classification System - Is a classification system for the construction industry. OmniClass is useful for many applications, from organizing library materials, product literature, and project information. Provides a classification structure for electronic databases.
- BCF - BIM Collaboration Format - Is an open standard (digital file) to communicate about the ‘issues’ of a BIM model during its design cycle. Is quite practical when sharing live project information between different BIM platforms.
Modeling and rendering.
3D model representation is the visualization of the design result, this is extremely useful because it allows, at first, to directly detect geometric issues, it also allows visual validation of technical solutions, and to show the architectural design quality to the client, materials, finishes, lighting, etc. There are a wide variety of ways to show a 3d model, depending on the use intended and objectives for the visualization, we can develop a vast amount of useful information:
- Renders:Realistic representation of the final appareance of the project. Allows to select strategic points of view, to generate concrete scenes to enhance in the project.
- Lighting Analysis: Can be evaluated through specific scenes, in different moments during the day, how the daylight influences the interiors, to truly control colors and material qualities with a specific daylight and artificial lighting.
- Walkthrough animations: on video format, or with real-time visualization like a video game.
- Clash detection - Modelchecker: We generate interactive models to detect and correct interferences between disciplines.
- Laser 3d scanning: Allows to generate a digital model from the existing geometry to incorporate to the project.
BIM4D process simulates the planning sequence of construction activities and space requirements on a building site. 4D modeling provides a powerful visualization and communication tool that gives project teams (including owners and building users) a better understanding of project milestones and construction plans. 4D simulation can help teams identify problems well in advance of construction activities, when they are much easier and less costly to resolve. 4D models can also used to plan the phased occupancy in a renovation, retrofit, addition. Creating dynamic phasing plans of occupancy enables multiple options and solutions to space conflicts to be considered and evaluated. Using BIM models to evaluate the locations of both permanent and temporary facilities on site during multiple phases of the construction process also can be achieved in 4d dimension development. BIM models can be linked with construction activity schedules to explore space and sequencing requirements. Additional information describing equipment locations and materials staging areas can be integrated into the project model to facilitate and support site management decisions, enabling project teams to effectively generate and evaluate layouts for temporary facilities, assembly areas, and material deliveries for all phases of construction. By linking timelines of project tasks to model elements, we can create a complete 4D simulation of the construction process from the demolition phase through owner move-in. This simulation can be used to inform critical planning decisions about construction methods, resource allocation, activity sequencing, site space utilization, and so on.
Bill of Quantities management.
BIM involves more than just 3D modelling and is also commonly defined in further dimensions. 4D links information and data in the 3D object model with project programming and scheduling data and facilitates the simulation analysis of construction activities. 5D integrates all of this information with cost data such as quantities, schedules and prices. The greatest value in BIM5D lies in the ability to be able to utilise electronic models to provide detailed 5D estimates and living cost plans in real time.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) and automated quantities technologies provide both opportunities and challenges for the project cost management. As quantification increasingly becomes automated will need to incorporate 4D time and 5D cost modelling and sharing cost information/data with the project team as part of the BIM integrated project delivery approach.
Cost 5d management provides greatest value through a cost planning development at the conceptual front end stages of a project by providing cost advice and estimates on various design proposals and then refining those estimates as the design evolves. Using traditional 2D approaches this cost planning advice takes considerable time and inhibits rigorous comparative analysis within the allocated time frame for the design development process. The 5D Cost Management can do this extremely quickly, an endless number of times and in a complexity of combinations, can also re-estimate the developing design an endless number of times providing feedback on the estimate variances and corrective suggestions.
BIM and automated quantities technologies provide the profession with enormous opportunities to raise the value of their services to a much higher and sophisticated level. It is not simply about automatic quantities generation. The ability to simulate a range of design options with real-time cost advice and continue that real-time cost advice throughout the detailed design, construction and operational stages will arguably place the project cost management at the top of the ‘value chain’ for project clients. It also places the BIM5D project in a powerful position to maintain and control key information the virtual model and drive cost performance on projects.
Building Performance Analysis is related to LOD (Level of Development), prevents modeled elements from progressing to the next step of LOD in the absence of information. If the answers to discrete questions related to the building behavior have not been found, BIM Performance can be a mechanism for finding answers to these questions and informing the design process.
BIM Performance practices share a feedback loop that at times are not as linear as the steps to developing levels of detail in the BIM model.
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (LOD 100):
•Run conceptual energy analysis using and modifying massing forms and determine the most energy efficient building form.
•Conduct basic shade/shadow analysis of the massing model to determine what areas support daylighting.
•Do solar radiation studies of the mass model to maximize opportunities for solar collection.
•Study how the orientation of the massing model interacts with wind on the site. Orientation of the building can optimized.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT (LOD 200):
•Run whole building energy analysis of building model, and identify how changes in wall construction can reduce energy demands.
•Complete simulations that determine the general geometry of performative features to determine if project is working as predicted.
•Run interior daylighting analysis of spaces, and confirm proper light levels are being achieved.
•After maximizing the efficiency of the building envelope, run cooling/heating load simulation to size HVAC equipment.
•Perform structural analysis of model so that structural systems can be optimized.
FINAL DESIGN (LOD 300):
•Perform detailed whole building energy analysis of the final design to document expected performance.
•Compare final design against the measurement matrices that were defined in Conceptual Design.
•Perform greenhouse gas emissions analysis to document expected environmental impact.
•Audit final building materials for costs and green qualities (recycled content, close proximity to construction site, low VOCs).
CONSTRUCTION (LOD 400):
•Analyze building quantities to assure that exact material quantities are delivered to the project site.
•Analyze best fabrication methods with digital automation. This step reduces waste material in the production of building assemblies.
•Run construction scheduling simulations that identify how to reduce equipment operations on the project site.
BUILDING OPERATION (LOD 500):
•Perform initial and ongoing commissioning of environmental systems to assure they are working as anticipated.
•Add ongoing utility cost/demand data to energy model, and compare/identify differences between designed and actual performance.
•Administer occupancy survey to verify occupant satisfaction, and make recommendations to facilities management.